Yet despite these incredible energies, the protons in the Sun’s core would never be able to begin this chain reaction if the Universe were completely deterministic. It requires the wave nature of quantum mechanics to make it possible, proving that Einstein’s famous statement, that “God does not play dice with the Universe,” was false.
My only problem with this entire line of argument is that it does not prove the indeterminacy of the universe. It only proves the apparent indeterminacy of the universe from our perspective. There may well be a mechanism of action with regard to the motion of particles that we have not perceived. This is especially the case if the motion of a given subatomic particles can be described by a vector that includes spatial dimensions we have not yet been able to observe.
I will grant that the burden of proof was on Einstein when he made his claim that “God does not play dice with the Universe,” and he failed to supply such proof, but the statement is presently neither validated nor invalidated. We have an absence of evidence for deterministic explanations for quantum processes such as particle motion, but we have no evidence of absence.
I’m completely on board with how quantum tunneling happens, and I’m well aware it’s why the Sun shines. I’m just not prepared to take the leap from understanding that to closing the book on the determinacy argument.